Windows 10 does connect stongly from that compurt but Linux will only connect when close. So in that Windows 10 goes connect fine it doesn't seem like a bad wifi card to me.
So many variables with WiFi including drivers. Hard telling if the Linux drivers are tweaked as well as the Windows. You are talking the same computer at the same distance, correct?
Are you using a direct Linux OS or running a Linux VM?
You might want to try different network drivers if they are available. It's also possible that the network settings were altered by the network driver in Linux compared to the driver used in Windows. And odd thing.
I've lost track which one is close, which one isn't and which is running what.
My head's spinning so I'm just going to leave it alone.
I would look at the particular drivers for the wifi module being a potential culprit...
Would you be able to tell us if both your computers are connecting on the 2.4Ghz or the 5Ghz? The default SSID's reflect the band. 5Ghz has a shorter range than 2.4Ghz, so it is very possible one of the computers (most likely the older one) is connecting on 2.4Ghz and the newer one is trying to get on 5Ghz.
It would be beneficial to check on any channel interference, or simply try changing the channel settings (this depends on what you find out about the bands). If you have an Android phone/tablet, you can download the Netgear Wi-Fi Analyzer to find an optimal channel.