I know it comes thru on fiber optic. What I am trying to find out is, where do the cable companies have their internet originate. It travels thru fiber optic, but it doesn't originate there. It all comes from satellites. Maybe larger ones and more of them than Hughesnet has, but it comes from satellites. If you know differently, please feel free to tell me. I can admit it if I am wrong.
The internet provided by cable does NOT come from satellites. The very low latency alone proves this. Cable internet is ground based, throughout the entire network. Cable internet originates the same place all other internet originates: computers, servers and ultimately, networks.
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A very small percentage of everyday communication uses two-way satellite. TV news programs, large international corporations, the military, and companies like HughesNet are what use the bulk of satellite two-way communications.
When you say "cable companies" you have to define the "product".... That being ... television OR Internet services.
Its ALL data but television is "one-way" communication whereas Internet is "two-way".
Here is a map of the terrestrial Internet:
It consists of a hodge podge of coper wire and fiber-optic using a number of routers and switches.
In some cases a company may use a satellite to uplink TV data streams to companies such as Directv or Dish. Again these are one-way blanket transmissions but most traffic is carried over fiber.
Two-way satellite communication is radically different. Hughes owns outright (at this point) two satellites ... Echostar17 that handles Gen4 HT1000/1100 system traffic and Spaceway3 that handles the HN9000 systems. There also are a few remaining "legacy" systems that connect to satellites that Hughes leases transponder space on. This would be the HN7000 platform but these are being phased out as they are ultra low capacity systems.
Hughes maintains ground stations called Gateways .... and those Gateways connect to the "real Internet" at "head ends" where Hughes purchases ISP bandwidth ... I think Hughes uses Level 3.
Directv can blanket TV service to the entire continental US .. one "channel" per frequency.
Hughes however has to provide two-way service both up and down directly to/from YOUR dish.
Your request for a webpage travels from your computer>Modem>roof mounted transmitter> to the satellite and down to your assigned Gateway .. where it joins the "real Internet. The request then follow the normal terrestrial paths to the server containing your information. That info is then sent to your Gateways "head End" and then transmitted back up to the satellite, then down to your dish mounted reciever then demodulated by your modem and then finally displayed displayed on your computer or networked device.